The stem

The shoulder stem is available in a variety of versions; they differ mainly in the method of anchorage and in shape. With the exception of the short stem shoulder prostheses are characterised by a long stem that is anchored in the upper arm bone.

Implants with a smooth, polished surface are anchored in the bone with cement Stems with a rough-blasted, porous surface or a special coating are implanted in the bone without cement; over time, the bone grows onto the prosthesis.