Mathys

Knee joint

General Patient Information

Glossary

Abduction

The movement of limbs away from the central axis of the body

Abrasion

Very tiny parts (wear particles) coming away from the surfaces of an (artificial) joint when it is moving or exposed to strain

Acetabulum

(Latin for vinegar cup), in anatomy: the deep, cup-shaped cavity holding the hip joint

Acute

Occurring rapidly, suddenly, severely

Acetylsalicylacid

(Aspirin) is a pain-killer that inhibits inflammation and lowers fever

Adduction

The movement of a limb towards the median line in the body

AE

Abbreviation for «Arbeitgemeinschaft für Endoprothetik»

Agonist

Muscle that works in the same direction of motion

AHB

Abbreviation for "Anschlussheilbehandlung" (clinical rehabilitation treatment), i.e. in-patient treatment after surgery in a specially equipped clinic; the costs are borne by the state pension funds such as the «Landesversicherungsanstalt» (LVA) (Land social insurance office) or the «Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte» (BfA)(Federal Social Insurance Office for Salaried Employees)

Anamnesis

A patient's medical history

Allergy

A sensitive and unusual reaction of the organism and its immune system to alien substances such as metals, medicines, pollen etc.

Allo(arthro)plastics

Replacement of the body's own (joint) tissue by artificial material, e.g. an artificial limb

Alloy

A combination of various metals with considerably improved properties as compared with pure metals. Thus all hip shafts are made of alloys

Aluminium oxide

A ceramic material used to make ball heads and cup inserts, chemical formula: Al2 O3

Analgesia

Pain relief

Analgetica

Medicines that relieve pain

Analgeticum

Pain-killer

Anaemia

An abnormal reduction in the number of red blood cells

Anaesthetics

Making numb, deadening (nerves), removing feeling of pain

Antagonist

A resisting or counteracting muscle

ante-

Prefix meaning «before», «in front of», «premature»

Anteflexion

Moving or bending forwards

Antetorsion

Forward rotation, e.g. forward rotation of the neck of the femur via-`s-vis the knee axis

Anteversion

Forward inclination, e.g. forward positioning of the hip cup

anti-

Prefix meaning «against»

Antibiotic

Medicine to prevent inflammation caused by germs (e.g. bacteria)

Antihistaminica

Medicines for allergic reactions

Antiphlogistica

Medicines to inhibit inflammation, usually relieving pain and lowering fever as well. These frequently used medicines are also known as nonsteroid antiphlogistica as they differ from hormones that inhibit inflammation such as cortisone and corticoide, both chemically and in terms of their effects. They relieve pain and swelling, thus giving greater mobility to a joint

Antipyretica

Medicines that lower fever, usually relieving pain and inhibiting inflammation as well

Antirheumaticum

A medicine for rheumatism that relieves pain and inhibits inflammation

Apatit

Mineral compound, as found in bones

Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Endoprothetik

Scientific association for research and teaching in the field of artificial joints

Arthralgie

Means a pain in the joint

Arthritis

This is an inflammation of the joint. It can attack a single joint (monarticular) or several joints (polyarthritis) (see chronic polyarthritis, pcP).

Arthritis psoriatica

The simultaneous occurrence of certain skin phenomena (psoriasis) and polyarthritis

Arthritis urica

An inflammation attacking certain joints and leading to gout

Arthrodesis

The surgical stiffening of a joint

Arthron

Greek for «joint»

Arthropathy

Usually means a disease of the joints, usually arthrosis caused by wear and tear

Arthroplastics

Correction or restoration of a joint through surgery

Arthrosis

A degenerative disease of the joints caused by wear and tear causing a painful change that curtails its functions; it often occurs after many years of engaging in certain forms of highly powered sport

Arthroscopy

Examination of the inside of the joint with a special optical instrument: to put it in simple terms: a thin tube with a lamp and a magnifying glass (arthroscope)

Articular

Concerning a joint

Articulation

The supple point of connection between bones, joint pair

Asepsis

Sterility, the state of being free of germs, i.e. without bacteria, fungus etc., for example on hands and instruments that come into contact with a wound

Aseptic

Germ-free, not prone to inflammation

auto-

Prefix for: self, of one's own accord, own

Autologue

Belonging to one's own body, e.g. the transplantation of the body's own bone tissue is known as autologue bone transplantation

Bagatelle trauma

A small, insignificant injury

Baker's cyst

Sagging of the knee-joint capsule into the hollow of the knee, named after the English surgeon, Baker

Balneophysical

Conservative types of treatment such as hydrotherapy massages, mud packs, electrotherapy

Basic therapeutic drugs

This is the name given to medicines that are most likely to combat the causes of a disease. They do not take immediate effect, but only after a few weeks and can heal polyarthritis or bring about a long-lasting improvement in the patient's condition. They are not pain-killers in the usual sense of the term.

bearing

In this context this means the bearing of an artificial joint

Bechterew's disease

(Morbus Bechterew) is a disease of the spine causing it to stiffen and is caused by a chronic inflammation of the ligaments of the spine

BfA

Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte (Federal Social Insurance Office for Salaried Employees in Germany)

bi-

Prefix meaning two, double

Bicondylar

Double-headed, double-surfaced as with a knee when both surfaces of the joint are replaced, i.e. both inside and outside (at the femur and at the shinbone)

Bio-compatible

Compatible with the living body, e.g. plastics and metals that can be implanted into the body

Biology

The science of life, science of living creatures

Bio-mechanics

The laws of mechanics as applied to the human body

BKK

Abbreviation for «Betriebskrankenkasse» (company health insurance fund); a statutory health insurance scheme in Germany

Bone cement

A rapidly hardening plastic on a plexiglass basis to used to anchor artificial joints in the bone. In a viscous state the bone cement penetrates into gaps und cavities in the bone and, after it has hardened, ensures that the implant is firmly anchored

Bone joint surge

Loss of tissue at bone surfaces near the joints; in an X-ray this is a typical sign of chronic polyarthritis

Bouchard's nodes

The name given to a bony enlargement on the upper side of a centre finger joint that has been altered due to arthrosis. This sometimes painful enlargement has nothing to do with polyarthritis (PcP)

CAD

Abbreviation for «computer aided design»; computer-supported design of an article, e.g. an artificial joint (CAD prosthesis)

Caisson disease

A decompression sickness occurring in divers. If a diver resurfaces too fast bubbles of nitrogen are formed in the blood that clog the blood vessels and can cause various abnormalities, pain and paralysis

Calcium

In important element in building up the hard substance of the bones

Capsula

Latin: capsule, joint capsule

Caput

Latin: head, joint head, femoral head

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A sign of pressure; the nerve that runs through a tendon channel of the muscles of the lower arm close to the wrist (known as the carpal tunnel) is pressed together by the swelling of the synovial membrane. The pressure on the nerve causes pain, burning and a pricking sensation in the region of the hand affected

Cartilage

Vitreous coating of joint-forming bone surfaces, soft, elastic, resistant to pressure, watery

CAS

Abbreviation for «computer aided surgery»; operations where the computer is used as a special aid, e.g. planning robots, navigation

Catheter

Tube for draining off body fluid, e.g. bladder catheter to drain off urine from the bladder

CCD angle

Abbreviation for «caput-collum diaphysis angle», i.e. the angle between the femoral head and femoral neck and the shaft of the femur; in adults this is usually about 125-130°

Cement

A self-hardening, filling substance between two or several components e.g. bricks, but also between bone and implant

Ceramics

A group of substances with a high degree of stability and a high melting temperature. Ceramic raw materials often consist of compounds of metals and non-metals

Chiropractics

This means the use of manual techniques, especially in the case of certain functional abnormalities («resetting»).

Chondropathia patellae

A cartilage degeneration at the kneecap, often as the result of mechanical damage

Chondroprotective agents

Medicines for treating the cartilage in the case of diseases of the joints

Chromium

Metal, chemical formula: Cr, is an important part of many metal implants

Chrondropathy

A disease of the cartilage (usually caused by wear and tear)

Chronic

Always present, proceeding slowly, developing gradually

Clavicula

Shinbone

Co

Chemical formula for Cobalt

Cobalt

Metall, chemische Abkürzung: Co, ist Hauptbestandteil vieler metallischer Implantate

Collapse

Collapse of the circulation, known in medical circles as «shock»

Collum

Latin: the neck, e.g. femoral neck (collum femoris)

Commotio cerebri

This is a form of brain concussion. It is caused by force being applied to the head and can lead to disturbance of consciousness and a dazed state

Comminuted fracture

This is a fracture where the bone is crushed into small pieces

Compact bone

Cortical bone, the firm bone around the shaft of long bones

Compression dressing

Dressing with specially applied pressure,used, for example, in the case of bruises or phlebitis

Computer tomography

X-ray procedure where a computer calculates and displays very fine sectional images of a region of the body, abbreviation: CT

Concave

Curving inwards, hollow

Condylus

Joint projection, joint head

Conservative therapy

Treatment not involving surgery

Contra

Prefix meaning against, opposite

Contraindication

All factors that do not permit the administration of a certain drug or medicine

Contracture

Forced position of a joint through the permanent contraction of certain muscles, e.g. due to the shrinkage of the joint capsule or the deformity of joint surfaces

Contusion

This is the name given to a bruise, usually due to the application of force such as a push or a blow, without injury to the skin. There is bruising to the tissue below the skin and sometimes to the muscles as well, often with haematoma

Conus

Anchoring principle in endoprosthetics: the inner conus is locked onto the outer conus, e.g. linking the head and neck of a hip prosthesis

Convex

Curved towards the outside

Corrective osteotomy

Surgical correction of incorrect positioning of the joint-forming bones

Cortical

Of the cortical bone, belonging to the cortical bone

Corticalis bone

Firm bone tissue in long bones, corresponds to the compact bone, cortical bone in contrast to the spongy bone

Corticoides

Hormones, known as steroid hormones (the body's own message substances messenger substances) inhibiting inflammation and with anti-allergic effects, e.g. cortisone

Coxa

Latin: the hip

Coxarthrosis

A form of arthrosis, i.e. degenerative wear and tear of the hip

Coxitis

Acute and sudden inflammation of the hip joint

cP

Abbreviation for chronic polyarthritis, i.e. rheumatism of the joints

CPM

Abbreviation for continuous passive motion; it means the permanent, post-operative movement of a joint through motorised, external aids

Cr

Chemical formula for chromium

Cruciate ligament

Ligament connection at the centre of the knee joint, front and rear; the cruciate ligaments prevent the femur from sliding backwards and forwards and over the lower leg

CT

Abbreviation for computer tomography

Cubitus

Elbow

custom-made

In this context, a custom-made hip prosthesis, for example

Cutaneous

Of the skin, e.g. subcutaneous: «under the skin» (as with an injection)

Cutis

Skin

Cyst

A blister, a cavity, a hollow, e.g. bone cysts in the development of arthrosis

Cytostatics

These are substances that considerably delay or prevent the division of the cells. They are mainly used in cancer therapy, but also in various, advanced stages of chronic polyarthritis

Degenerative

Non inflammatory, subject to wear and tear, atrophic

Derma

Skin

Desault dressing

An elastic bandage for the temporary immobilisation of the shoulder and the arm

Destruction

Means the destruction of tissue or organs, usually through injury or inflammation

Deuserband

Rubber band to train the muscles

dia-

Prefix meaning through, between, apart

Diagnosis

Recognising and putting a name to (a disease or illness)

Diaphysis

Centre section of a long bone, shaft

Differential diagnosis

The demarcation of a disease within a group of diseases with similar symptoms

Disinfection

A measure to reduce the number of germs and to kill pathogens (disease-causing agents) on surfaces, e.g. a patient's skin in the area where surgery is carried out, the surgeon's hands and lower arms

Dislocation

Change in position, shift

Distal

Parts removed from the trunk

Distorsion

An excessively pulled muscle. This is an injury to the joints that is caused by going beyond the normal scope of movement, e.g. going over on or twisting one's ankle, and is often linked with a lengthening of the ligamentous apparatus and swelling.

Doping

This is the illegal taking of drugs in sport for the purposes of increasing athletic performance

Dorsal

Backwards, on the reverse, at the back

Dosage

The amount of medicine administered

Drainage

The drainage of wound fluid or blood from the body

Draw sign

When the lower leg slides to an abnormal degree against the femur when the knee is bent. Occurs in the case of a torn cruciate ligament at the knee

Dysplasia

Malformation, maldevelopment, inadequate shaping (e.g. of the hip joint cup)

Electrotherapy

Treatment with electricity of certain damaged muscles that are stimulated to produce individual convulsions by means of high-frequency electric contact, e.g. to activate paralysed muscles

Elevation

Lifting and moving forwards

Embolie

Blood clot, vascular obliteration through transportation into the bloodstream

endo-

Prefix meaning «inside»

Endoprosthesis

An artificial joint, e.g. an artificial knee joint or hip joint

epi-

Prefix meaning: on, above, after, outside

Epicondylitis humeri

(Tennis elbow); mainly occurs after excessive strain to the outer muscles of the lower arm, e.g. during intensive tennis matches causing the muscles and tendons to become inflamed. There is a localised pain at the transition of the tendon into the bone, that can spread down to the hand

Epicondylitis humeri lateralis

The Latin name for «tennis elbow»

Epidural hematoma

Bleeding between the dural membrane und the inner table of the skull caused by an injury. In a matter of hours or in up to 2 days there is pressure on the dural membrane with unconsciousness, paralysis, extended pupils etc.; immediate surgery is called for

Epikondylus

A bony projection next to the knee joint surfaces of the femur

Epiphyse

Part of a long bone close to a joint, section with epiphyseal line (bone growth line)

Exanthem

A skin rash

Extended release

This is a type of medicine with a very delayed release of the active agent to achieve a prolonged therapeutic effect

Extension

Stretching movement of a joint

Extension bandage

An extension bandage with permanent tension, weights being used as a tensile force

Extra articular

This means outside of a joint

Extremity

A limb, leg or arm

Fascia

A wrapping of connective tissue around the muscles

Femoral

Concerns the thigh, belonging to the thigh

Femur

Long bone of the thigh

Fibula

Calf-bone

Finger polyarthrosis

This is a form of arthrosis affecting several finger joints

Fissure

Tearing of the bone

Fixateur externe

This means an «external skeletal fixation», a metal frame screwed on outside the body with clamps. With this device open fractures are treated in such a way that the broken body part is immobilised and can heal

Fixation

Fixing or anchoring an implant, for example

Flail joint

A loose joint that in sport is usually caused by repeated and excessive stretching of the joint capsules and the ligaments or by dislocations

Flexion

Bending movement of a joint

Forging

Process for the manufacture of components (e.g. prosthesis shafts) by reshaping when hot by means of blows or pressure. In contrast to moulding the metals are not melted down

Four point crutch gait

Ambulation on two crutches, e.g. the left crutch being placed forward first followed by the right foot and then the right crutch followed by the left foot

Fracture

This means a broken bone, an open fracture is a broken bone with an open wound

Ganglion

Nodes, sagging of the joint capsules

Gastritis

An inflammation of the lining of the stomach

Genetic

Congenital, concerning the genes, inherited

Gentamicin

Antibiotic that is added to the bone cement in order to prevent infection

GKV

Abbreviation for "Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung" (statutory health insurance scheme in Germany) e.g. "AOK", "Betriebskrankenkassen" or "Ersatzkassen"

Glucocorticoide

This is a sub-group of the corticoides with stronger anti-inflammatory properties than the non-steriod antiphlogistica. As glucocorticoides have considerable side effects if they are administered over a long period, their administration requires regular medical supervision

Gluteus

Buttock, muscles of the backside that also serve to stabilise the hip

Gold salts

Belong to the basis therapeutic drugs used to treat chronic polyarthritis

Gonarthrosis

Degenerative wear and tear (arthrosis) of the knee joint

Gonitis

An inflammation of the knee joint

Greenstick fracture

This is the name given to an incomplete fracture of the bone in young people, long bone

HA

Chemical formula for hydroxylapatite

Habitual

This means repeatedly occurring

Haemoglobine

Gives the red blood cells their colour, that is the cells that carry oxygen to the tissue

Hardened muscles

This is the permanent tensing of a muscle that can usually be moved at will

Hard on soft

A joint connection consisting of two materials of differing hardness e.g. metal (head) and polyethylene (cup)

Head trauma

An injury to the cervical vertebrae that occurs when the head and trunk are thrown backwards or forwards too fast, particularly occurring in collision accidents. The heavy pulling and bending of the spine can cause injury to the vertebrae, fractures and torn ligaments

Heat-stroke

A physical abnormality caused by a build up of heat in the body e.g. in the case of strong sun or sultry air, strong physical exertion, reduced secretion of heat (sweat). The consequences are unconsciousness, cramp and fever

Hematoma

Bleeding causing an accumulation of blood in the tissue or cavities, usually accompanied by swelling. It first appears as a bluish-red and later as a greenish-yellow discoloration

Haematuria

This means that there is blood in the urine

Hard-on-hard

The articular surfaces of an artificial joint are made of the same (hard) material, e.g. metal-metal or ceramic-ceramic

Heparin

An anti-coagulent drug. Inhibits blood clotting, reverses clotting - is contained in many ointments that are used to treat bruises, contusions, hematoma etc.

Herberden's nodes

A form of arthrosis, usually of several finger joints with the formation of nodes on the top of the end finger joints; may also be accompanied by inflammation at times, but has nothing to do with chronic polyarthritis

Hernia

This means a rupture

High frequency therapy

This is the application of rapidly pulsating, alternating currents (short wave and microwave ). These create a thermal effect that contributes towards the accelerated healing of many sport injuries such as pulled muscles, dislocations und sprains

HTEP

Abbreviation for: "HüftTotalEndoProthese" (total hip endoprosthesis), consisting of a hip cup with cup insert, hip shaft and ball head

Humerus

The bone of the upper arm

Hybrid

A mixture, a cross, a compound, of dual origin, e.g. the hybrid anchoring of a total endoprosthesis: part of the prosthesis is cemented in the bone and the other part is uncemented

Hydroxylapatite

A mineral compound of the hard bone substance; it can be manufactured artificially as a ceramic material and serves as a surface coating for uncemented joints, chemical formula: HA

hyper-

A prefix meaning excessive

hypo-

A prefix meaning, too little

i.m.

Abbreviation for intra-muscular (e.g. an injection)

i.v.

This means intravenous, injected into the vein

Idiopathic

Arising of its own accord; in the case of diseases idiopathic means that the cause of a disease is not known; idiopathic arthrosis = arthrosis without any recognisable cause or without any cause known so far

Iliosacral joint

Joint between the ilium bone und the sacrum, i.e. end of the rear pelvic ring

Ilium

This is actually os ilium, Latin for ilium bone

Immobilisation

Lack of movement, restriction of movement, e.g. in the case of a limb or a part of the body

Implant

Artificial functional part that is implanted into the body as a replacement

Indication

The area of application for a medicine or surgery

Infection

The penetration of germs, such as bacteria, into the body

infra-

Prefix for under, after, later

Infusion

Administration of medicines or solutions of active agents into the vein

Initial pain

This means that the start of a movement, e.g. that of a person suffering from arthrosis, is painful. The pain partly abates after the patient has been moving for some time as the joint is then sufficiently well «lubricated»

Inlay

The sliding surface of an artificial joint that is put into a metal case and that serves as a partner for the prosthesis head

Insert

This has the same meaning as inlay

Instrument

In this context a surgical tool, apparatus

inter

between

intra-

Prefix meaning inside

Intra-articular

This means located inside a joint

Isometric muscular contraction

The tensing of a muscle without any visible contraction of the muscle

Isotonic muscular contraction

The visible contraction of a muscle at constant tension

-itis

Suffix that always indicates an inflammation and a sudden pathological condition, e.g. gonitis: inflammation of the knee joint

Jet-Lavage

Rinsing the bone with a pulsating jet of water to remove marrow tissue from the gaps in the bone and to make room for the cement

Joint capsule

The wrapping around a joint cavity. It consists of a tender joint membrane inside (synovialis) and an outer layer which is fibrous and firm

Joint cavity

The space between the surfaces of a joint

Juvenile chronic arthritis

A sub-form of chronic polyarthritis. It starts in young people under the age of 15. Only one joint is usually affected on the onset of the disease

Knee-joint effusion

Increased fluid in the joint

Lateral

Latin for side, sideways

Lavage

French for washing, rinsing; rinsing to remove marrow tissue from the bone in order to create space for bone cement and to allow it to penetrate

Leucopenia

An abnormal reduction in the number white blood cells

Ligament

This is a tough band of connective tissue that stabilises a joint, for example a joint ligament such as the cruciate ligament

Local anaesthetic

Local therapy where the place of application and the place that the therapy takes effect are identical, e.g. the use of ointments, bandages etc. in the case of diseases of the skin, wounds, bruises and pulled muscles

Locked joint

The joint can no longer be completely stretched or bent

Lumbago

A sudden, usually pricking pain in the small of the back, accompanied by the inability to move and hardened muscles

Lumbal

Latin: pertaining to the lumbar spine

Luxation

A dislocation; the dislocation of two joint surfaces from their normal position so that the joint can no longer be properly moved

m

Abbreviation for musculus

Magnetic resonance tomography

Procedure for displaying parts of the body with electro-magnetic waves. Sectional images are generated on various levels. Soft tissue such as capsules, tendons, muscles and cartilages can also be displayed; abbreviation: MRT

March fracture

A breakages of the bone in the centre of the foot after excessive and unaccustomed strain, such after a very long march

Medial

Latin: in the middle, towards the centre (of the body)

Medial collateral ligament rupture

The tearing of the side ligament on the inside of the knee, a typical injury suffered by football players and skiers that is caused by a suddenly curbed rotation und bending of the lower leg

Medullary (marrow) cavity

Cavity in a long bone, filled with fatty tissue in the case of adults

Meniscal tear

This is a frequent form of injury to the meniscus where the meniscus is torn lengthwise

Meniscectomy

Surgical removal of the meniscus or of parts of it

Meniscus

A cartilaginous, mobile intra-joint disc in the shape of a half moon at the knee joint between the thigh and the shinbone; there is an inner and an outer meniscus

Meniscus injury

The tearing of a knee joint meniscus as a result of excessive strain

Metallurgy

The science of the melting of metals from ores, of the cleaning, refinement and processing of metals

Metallurgical

Pertaining to metallurgy

minor

lateinisch: kleiner, der kleinere

Mobilisation

Making a joint mobile

Monarthritis

The inflammation of only one joint

Monarticular

Means affecting only one joint

Morning stiffness

A frequent phenomenon experienced by patients suffering from chronic polyarthritis (PcP) with painful inhibition of the functions of the joints lasting at least 15 minutes and disappearing of its own accord during the course of the morning or by holding and bending the joint in warm water

MRT

Abbreviation for magnetic resonance tomography

Musculus

Latin: actually means a little mouse, the muscle, abbreviation: m

Muscle cramp

This is a sudden, usually painful contraction of the muscles that often occurs in the case of fatigue, under-nourishment of the muscle or excessive strain

Myositis ossificans

The ossification of a muscle that can occur as a late consequence of a local injury to a muscle

Narcosis

Numbness, deadening of pain, obliteration of consciousness

Navigation

Procedure for the more exact steering and placing of instruments and implants. Can be carried out optically, with infra-red rays or electro-magnetically

Necrosis

The dying away of bony parts due to a reduced flow of blood through the bone

Neuralgy

These are sudden pains in the area affected by a nerve. The term is often used for the pain felt in the case of neuritis

Neural therapy

This means killing pain through the administration of local anaesthetics

Neuritis

Inflammatory disease of a nerve

Nitrogen narcosis

A phenomenon that occurs on deep-sea diving and that is similar to intoxication through alcohol. After a stage of euphoria, psychological disturbances, uncontrolled movements, can lead to unconsciousness and death

Non steroidal

In terms of chemistry, the body's own hormone; cortisone is a steroid and has a very strong effect in inhibiting inflammation. All anti-inflammatory drugs that contain no cortisone are therefore referred to as «non steroidal»

NSAR

Abbreviation for a non steroidal antirheumaticum; Group of medicines that inhibit inflammation and relieve pain, as administered in the case of chronic pain. They do not contain cortisone

Ödem

An accumulation of water in body tissue

Oligoarticular

Means only affecting a few joints

Orthesis

External stabilisation aid with splints and mobile elements for the stabilisation and guidance of joints (when there is a lack of muscle guidance)

ortho-

Prefix for straight, upright, in a straight direction

Orthopaedist

Physician who specialises in orthopaedics

Orthopaedics

Science of the development, prevention and treatment of congenital or acquired malfunctions or diseases in the form and function of the musculoskeletal system

os

Latin for bone

-ose

Suffix that describes a long-lasting, gradually developing disease, i.e. a chronic disease, e.g. arthrosis

Ossary

Pertaining to the bone

Ossification

New formation of bone, even where it is misplaced, e.g. in muscle or capsule tissue after a hip operation

Osteochondrosis

A degeneration of the bone and the cartilage

Osteolysis

Dissolution or degeneration of bone tissue

Osteomyelitis

A bacterial inflammation of the bone

Osteon

Greek for bone

Osteophytes

(Bone spurs); these are localised and formations of extra bone at the edges of the joint, often inhibiting mobility, a typical sign of arthrosis

Osteoporosis

Loss of bone mass and density; this can be caused by old-age, medicines or disease and is accompanied by increasing brittleness (loss of stability)

Osteosynthesis

The treatment of bone fractures through surgery. The bone parts that have been separated by the fracture are placed back together again without any gaps and joined by screws, nails or plates

Osteotomy

Surgical procedure to correct dislocated bones

Oscillating

Vibrating, swinging, swaying

Palpation

Examination by feeling and touching

pan-

Prefix meaning total, all-embracing, everything

Patella

The kneecap

Patellar

Pertaining to the kneecap

Pathology

Science of diseases, their development and consequences for the organs

PcP

Abbreviation for primary chronic polyarthritis, the scientific term for rheumatism

PE

In this context: abbreviation for polyethylene, a white polymer plastic

Penicillamine

A basic therapy for chronic polyarthritis

per-

Prefix for through

peri-

Prefix for around, near

Periarthropathia

("Frozen shoulder") a painful inflammation at the shoulder joint that impairs its functions, although the joint itself is usually not affected. It is a form of rheumatism that affects the soft tissue

Periarticular

Around a joint

Perioperative

Concerning a surgical operation, that is the time before, during and after the operation

Periost

This is the skin of the bone

Peripheral

Outside, at the edge, distant, away from the centre

Percutaneous therapy

Treatment through the skin. In this way the medicines in an ointment penetrate the skin and the underlying tissue

Phlebitis

This an a vein inflammation

Physical therapy (physiotherapy)

A therapy that can be used for many sport injuries with physical movements, partly in combination with medicines. It includes gymnastics, under water movements, medicinal baths, heat therapy and cold therapy

Physiotherapy

Treatment of illnesses by natural means such as baths, massages, gymnastics, light etc.

Piriformis syndrome

A pain that occurs in the region of the sciatic nerve when resting or in motion and which moves from the back to the legs accompanied by hardened muscles and rigidity of the spine. Piriformis syndrome is caused by changes to the inter-vertebral discs (e.g. disc prolapsis) in the lumbar spine and can start with lumbago

PKV

Abbreviation in German for "Private Krankenversicherung" (private health insurance)

Plaster cast

A cast made of plaster used to immobilise joints and limbs in a desired position. The initially soft plaster casts are dipped in water and then modelled to the body. They start to harden after about 30 minutes

Plastics

Production, restoration, reformation; restoration of a diseased section of tissue using the body's own material and also artificial material

Plateau

In this instance the bearing surface of the shinbone or the shinbone part of a knee prosthesis

Plug

This is applied in the marrow cavity in order to prevent the still viscous bone cement from penetrating any deeper

PMMA

Abbreviation for PolyMethylMethAcrylate, the chemical term for bone cement

Polyclinic

Greek: polis = town, i.e. the "clinic for the town" where out-patients are treated

poly

Prefix meaning many, several, multiple

Polyarthritis

Means inflammations of several joints occurring simultaneously or in succession; medical term for rheumatism

Polyarticular

Means affecting many joints

Polyethylene

A relatively soft, long-chain plastic used to make the socket component and bearing surfaces for artificial joints, e.g. cup insert for hip joints, bearing for knee endprostheses, abbreviation: PE

Polymer

Plastic consisting of comparatively large, individual parts that combine to form a long chain

Polymethylmethacrylate

Chemical name for the self-hardening plastic that is used as bone cement; this is therefore an acrylic resin, i.e. plexiglass; abbreviation: PMMA

Polytrauma

This is a multiple injury

post-

Prefix for after, later

Postoperative

After surgery

Prearthrosis

This is a pathological condition that favours the development of arthrosis, e.g. congenital dislocations that lead to above-average strain on the joint causing greater wear and tear

Pre-

Prefix for before, prior to

Preoperative

Before surgery

Press-fit

Press-fit is an uncemented implantation technique where parts of the prosthesis are firmly pressed into a small, preformed bone socket, thus giving it stability

Primary

In the case of illnesses and diseases the word primary means that no genuine causes are known, e.g. primary arthrosis = arthrosis without any hitherto known cause

Primary chronic polyarthritis (PcP)

Is often equated with "rheumatism" in everyday speech. It is a disease of the connective tissue that is not restricted to any certain regions. Other tissue such as tendons, synovial membranes, muscles, vessels and nerves are very often affected as well. Some signs are typical. These include the rheumatoid factor, rheumatic nodes and certain types of deformation. Fairly frequent complications are Raynaud's syndrome and the Carpal tunnel syndrome

Primary wound care

Wound care means the initial treatment of a wound after an injury. If a wound needs to be stitched (primary wound closure), this should be done within the first 6 hours after the injury

Primary stability

Stability and firmness of the position of a prosthesis immediately after implantation

Pro-

Prefix meaning, instead of, for, before

Prognosis

Forecast for the course of a disease and the chances of healing

Prophylaxis

Preventative measures

Prosthesis

Artificial replacement of an organ section or part of a limb

Proximal

Latin: close to the trunk

Pseudo-arthrosis

Incorrect formation of the joints; it is caused when a fracture does not heal and the bone parts remain mobile in relation to each other

Punction

Puncturing a vessel, organ or joint with a hollow needle; in the case of sport injuries also to remove fluid when knee-joint effusion occurs

Quadriceps

Four -headed knee extension muscle

Radiology

Science of the application of X-rays to display body parts (X-ray) and to treat diseases

Raynaud syndrome

A disease of the blood vessels that often occurs in the preliminary phase of chronic polyarthritis and that causes the hands to have a poor circulation of blood and be sensitive to cold

Recidive

This pertains to a relapse, the repetition of a disease after the symptoms have already abated

Redon drainage

Draining of blood and wound fluid after surgery through permanent suction; named after the French ear, nose and throat specialist, Redon

Reduction

The resetting of a joint

Rehabilitation

Medical, social and vocational measures for reintegration and the restoration of capabilities

Rider's bone

This is the ossification of the thigh muscles occurring in riders

Reiter's disease (Fiesinger-Leroy disease)

A clinical picture where there are usually three simultaneous symptoms: inflammation of the urethra (urethritis), inflammation of the iris of the eye (conjunctivitis) and polyarthritis

Remobilisation

Measures taken after surgery to restore the mobility and load-bearing capacity of a limb

Reposition

To reset(a joint or a fracture)

Resection

Cutting out, cutting off, removing

Resection arthroplastics

Removal of degenerative joint parts without replacing them by artificial implants

Resorption

Reabsorption, assimilation

Retinaculotomy

Surgical severing of the retinaculum, e.g. holding the knee disc; corresponds to a release operation

Retinaculum

Bands holding the tendons or the kneecap, for example, in place

retro-

Vorsilbe für. rück, zurück, rückwärtig, nach hinten

Revision

Fresh surgery in an area where surgery has already been performed

Rheuma

Greek for flowing: an inflammatory disease of the joints affecting various joints at different times; the disease flows through the body

Rheumatoid factor

A factor that can be determined in the blood and that can be found in the large majority of patients suffering from chronic polyarthritis

Rheumatic fever

This is an acute illness with fever and inflammation of the joints, usually lasting just a few weeks. It is a consequence of a streptococcen infection (certain type of bacteria ) that not infrequently starts in the throat area

Rheumatic nodes

These are nodes of tissue that are connected with an inflammation of the blood vessels and that occur in patients with very advanced chronic polyarthritis. They often occur around the elbows

Rheumatism

A collective term for diseases of the musculoskeletal system (muscles, skeleton etc. ) that cause pain and restrict movement and that can also cause diseases of internal organs (heart, lungs, liver etc.) , A distinction is made between the following three forms: 1. Inflammatory rheumatism: concerns inflammations of all tissue around the joints such as bones, cartilage, synovialis, ligaments etc. 2. Degenerative rheumatism: changes mainly to the cartilage and bone tissue around the joint without genuine inflammation, usually a result of wear and tear 3. Soft-tissue rheumatism: concerns the soft parts of the musculoskeletal system surrounding the joints

Rheumatoid

Pertaining to diseases that do not belong to the rheumatic diseases. Their clinical picture is similar to that of rheumatism, but they are inflammations of the joints following infections

Rheumatoide arthritis

Apparatus for the automatic execution of manual labour; surgical robots can carry out parts of an operation, such as cutting the bone socket for an implant

Rucksack bandage

A bandage that draws the shoulders backwards and serves to relieve the ends of a facture of the collar-bone

Rupture

Tearing, of a tendon, for example

s.c

Abbreviation for subcutaneous, i.e. below the skin, e.g. heparin injections for the prevention of thrombosis

Same material combination

Joint with two partners made of the same material, e.g. the head and the cup of an artificial hip joint made of metal

Scalpel

Surgical knife

Sclerosis

Hardening, thickening; e.g. sclerosis of the bone = thickening of the bone in arthritic joint sections

Sciaticalgy

Pain in the region of the sciatic nerve

Scintigraphy

Imaging of metabolic processes or organic functions with the aid of radioactive substances, e.g. bone or skeletal scintigraphy

Secondary

In the case of illnesses and diseases secondary means that a cause is known or there is an explanation; secondary arthrosis therefore means that the cause of the arthrosis is known

Sepsis

General infection of the entire organism

Septic

Prone to inflammation, caused by pathogens (disease-causing agents)

Serial rib fracture

A facture of several ribs lying one above the other, mainly the centre ribs

Serum

Proportion of water, salts and proteins in the blood without coagulents and cells

Shock

Also referred to as a collapse in everyday speech. This is a state of general weakness due to cardiovascular failure, caused by a drop in blood pressure. This excessively reduces the flow of blood through the brain causing dizziness or loss of consciousness

Side effects

Undesirable accompanying or subsequent effects of a certain medicine

Sliding partner

Serves as a sliding surface between two parts of a joint

Sliding pair

Combination of the materials that directly meet in an artificial joint (form the bearing surfaces of the joint)

Solar plexus shock

This is a shock (collapse) that is caused by a boxer's punch in the region of the upper pit of the stomach

Sonography

Display of sections of the body with sound-waves; e.g. examinations in pregnancy or examinations of the hip in the case of infants

Spinal

Belonging to the spine

Spondylolisthesis

Slippage of the vertebrae; this usually means the lumber spine slipping forwards in the region of the 5th lumbar vertebra. Often occurs in gymnastics and trampoline jumping

Spondylosis deformans

A disease of wear and tear to the vertebral discs. The disease also attacks the neighbouring vertebrae. It is mainly a disease suffered by older people and is a form of arthrosis

Spongiosa

Spongy bone, e.g. at the ends of long bones and forming the content of flat bones

Spongiosa plug

Plug made of bone, polyethylene or gelatine in order to prevent the bone cement penetrating too deeply into the marrow cavity

Sport injury

This is a creeping, usually no longer fully healable disease that is caused by excessive or one-sided sport. It is mainly a form of wear and tear to the cartilage of the joints which then leads to arthrosis

Staple

Closing a wound without stitches but by using metal staples

Sterile

Free of germs, infertile

Steroides

A group of substances with a certain chemical structure to which hormones, such as cortisone, also belong

Stomatitis

An inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth

Study

Planned scientific study or analysis of a certain question, e.g. the durability of an uncemented, total hip prosthesis or the type of pain suffered after joint replacement

Sub-

Prefix meaning under, below, too little, incomplete

Subcutanous

Latin for "under the skin", e.g. injection of heparin or insulin, abbreviation: s.c.

Subdural Haematoma

Bleeding caused by an injury inside the inner table of the skull and below the dural membrane. The bleeding leads to pressure on the brain which means that phenomena such as unconsciousness, paralysis or somatic disturbances can occur within differing periods of time (from hours to weeks)

Subluxation

Partial dislocation, incomplete dislocation of a joint (often automatically reset)

Super-

Prefix meaning excessive

Support bandage

A fixation bandage, e.g. a hard bandage to immobilise part of the body, used in the case of fractures, dislocations and after bone surgery

Support corset

A corset with a sewn-in frame to support and immobilise the spinal cord

Suppository

Administration of active agents through the mucous membrane of the (large) intestine

Supra-

Prefix meaning above, on top of, better, more

Symptom

The way in which a disease or illness manifests itself

Syndrome

A clinical picture with several characteristic symptoms

Synovectomy

Surgical removal of diseased joint tissue

Synovia

This means the "joint lubricant", a joint fluid that is formed by the mucous membrane of the joints

Synovialis

Is the inner skin of a joint

Synovial membrane

Double-walled sheaths around the tendons with a mucous fluid between the inner and the outer skin. Avoids friction to the tendons in sections exposed to particular strain

Synovitis

Inflammation of the inner skin of a joint

Tendinosis

This is a pathological change to the bone-tendon transition due to excessive mechanical strain, e.g. what is known as «tennis elbow»

Tendo

This is Greek for tendon, end part of the muscle, a cord of fibrous tissue between bone and muscle, transmitting the pull of the muscle to the bone

Tendon

A cord of fibrous tissue at the end of a muscle consisting of connective tissue and the connector between muscle and bone

Tendovaginitis

This is an inflammation of the synovial membrane

Tennis elbow

This is an inflammation of the tendons and muscles, mainly after excessive strain to the outer muscles of the lower arm, e.g. during intensive tennis matches; there is a localised pain at the transition of the tendoninto the bone, that can spread down to the hand

Tetanus

This is a sudden and serious infection that is caused by the poison of the tetanus bacillus and manifests itself in a cramp-like rigidity of the muscles. All injuries with an open wound (wounds to the skin!) are exposed to the risk of a tetanus infection. This is why everyone who suffers an open wound should be injected against tetanus if the patient does not already have sufficient protection through vaccination

Therapy band

A rubber band for independent exercise therapy to stretch and strengthen the muscles

Therapy

Treatment of diseases, healing

Therapy, local

Local treatment where the place of application and the place of therapy are identical, e.g. suitable in cases of diseases of the skin and the mucous membrane, wounds, bruises and pulled muscles

Therapy, systematic

This means general therapy where the medicine first enters the blood and is then transported to the desired place of therapy in the body. Examples are tablets, injections etc.

Thrombopenia

An abnormal reduction in the platelets in the blood. Platelets are needed for coagulation, e.g. after an injury

Thrombosis

Blood clot, usually in the veins, but also in the arteries; if a thrombus detaches itself and swims through the blood stream, it becomes an embolus

Ti

Chemical formula for: titanium

Tibia

Shinbone, the larger bone of the lower leg

Titanium

A very, tough, light metal that is resistant to corrosion; chemical formula: Ti

TKA

Abbreviation for "total knee arthroplasty"consisting of an artificial femur, and artificial lower leg and sliding partners, if necessary also with an artificial knee disc

Tomography

Sectional image, e.g. computer tomography = sectional images with an X-ray procedure where a computer rapidly calculates and displays image formations

Torsion

Rotation, axial rotation; antetorsion = forward rotation, retrotorsion = backward rotation

Tourniquet

French for turnstile, arrest of blood supply to restrict or completely interrupt the flow of blood for the duration of surgery

trans-

Prefix meaning across, on the other side, yonder

Transfusion

The injection of blood from a donor into the bloodstream

Trauma

This is the Greek word for an injury or wound

Traumatology

This is the science of the causation, treatment, prevention and consequences of injuries

Tribology

This is the science of the friction, wear and tear and lubrication of bodies/joint connections that move against each other; it is actually a term taken from mechanical engineering

Trochanter

Bony projection at the femur. The large Trochanter major, can be felt near the hip at the upper end of the outer side of the femur (minor = on the inside)

Trümmerfraktur

Knochenbruch mit mehreren Einzelbruchstücken

Tubus

Pipe, tube; tube into the trachea (windpipe) to supply oxygen during a narcosis = intubation narcosis

Ulcus

Ulcer, crater; an ulcer always means a loss of tissue; in contrast a tumour is always an increase in tissue

Ulnar deviation

A typical sign of chronic polyarthritis, a deviation of all long fingers from the thumb

Uni-

Prefix meaning, one, single, one-sided, alone

Unicondylar

Concerning only one joint head, e.g. in the case of knee prostheses where only one side is replaced, either on the inside or, more rarely, only on the outside

Unilateral

One-sided, only affecting one side of the body

Uveitis

An inflammation of the iris of the eyes

Valgus

Bent, not straight, bent towards the body (knock-kneed)

Varus

Bent, bent away from the body (bow-legged)

Vastus

Broad, large, muscle belly

Weckamines

These are stimulating substances that lead to a short-term increase in physical powers and capabilities, but also to euphoria, inner unrest, lack of concentration and insomnia. The use of weckamines in highly powered sport is known as doping and is prohibited

Zinc paste bandage

A stiff pressure bandage padded at sensitive areas of the skin and made of zinc paste or gauze bandages; the bandages are coated with a warmed mass of zinc gelatine after they have been applied

Zirconium oxide

Ceramic material that is used to make ball heads und as a an X-ray contrast medium in bone cements, chemical formula: ZrO2

ZrO2

Chemical formula for the ceramic material zirconium oxide

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